6.3. EXERCISES: THE ASPECT AND THE TIME FRAME

PL

We can do the exercises in our minds solely, as in the MIND PRACTICE.

Exercise 32. Our head verb is to work. We have the examples for our guidance.

Example 1: Monsieur Sauf had worked.
Answer: {TO} a PAST cognitive ground;
(a time frame open to a reference in the PAST).
PICTURE: OPEN REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PRESENT PERFECT

Example 2: Madame Règle will work.
Answer: {ON} a cognitive ground for the FUTURE;
(a time frame closed on a FUTURE time reference)
PICTURE: CLOSED TIME FRAME, FUTURE SIMPLE ARROW CUE

1. Monsieur Sauf worked.
2. Monsieur Sauf will have worked.
3. Madame Règle has worked.
4. Madame Règle works.

Exercise 33. Natural languages do not have fixed connotations. A “squid” can be a marine animal. It may be a bird toy. “A bit of cosmos” may be a garden stretch grown with cosmos flowers to attract birds. Please compare exercise 31 in the Extras and refer to a dictionary. There are many available also online.

Let us mind our time frames.
Example: The goldfish awoke, hearing a croak.
Answer: a/wake, {ON} the PAST ground
PICTURE: CLOSED REAL-TIME FRAME, THE PAST SIMPLE

1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.
2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.
3. The soybean alone outshone the legumes fair in Bayonne.
4. The hornbill had overlooked the rook by the brook.
5. The golden frog behind the chilidog overslept and wept.
6. The windflower withstood the rude mood in the wood.
7. The woodpecker has custom remade the pasquinade to treat his clade.
8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet.
9. The kinkajou understood that honey was for feel-good.
10. The kittiwake has shaken and partaken in casing bacon in Macon.

Feel welcome to further practice.
6.4. EXERCISES:
THE TIME FRAME AND THE VARIABLES, ON OR TO

 

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