5.3. PRACTICE: REAL SYNTAX AND MORE WORDS

Abbreviated verb forms are really much in use in American English. It is important to learn telling them. For irregular verbs, feel welcome to ■→APPENDIX 2 and ■→APPENDIX 3. We first try the exercises in our thoughts, as in the ■→MIND PRACTICE.

Exercise 29. We can tell abbreviated “is” from “has” only by their contexts, as both get shortened to ’s. We continue practicing as in ■→EXERCISE 28.
’m: am
’re: are
’s: is
’ve: have
’s: has
’d: had

Example: They’ve clung.
Answer: cling, clang, clung.

1. We’re swimming.
2. It’s shone.
3. You’d gainsaid.
4. She’s eaten.
5. They’d woken.
6. He’s heard.
7. They’re working.
8. She’d spun.
9. It’s crowing.
10. You’ve spoken.

Exercise 30. Let us think about the three verb forms, along with the mapping variable and the target grammatical time.

Example: She’s read.
Answer: TO, the PRESENT; read, read, read

1. We’re drawing.
2. She’s sung.
3. You’d written.
4. You’ve colored.
5. They’ve painted.
6. She’s swinging.
7. It’s ringing.
8. She’s left.
9. I’m dreaming.
10. We’ve played.

Feel welcome to the second part of the language journey:
■→PART TWO, CONTENT.

■→This text is also available in Polish.


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