Everyday language has phrases as a flow or passage of time, a course or current of events: people happen to have such impressions about life and time. Let us try to imagine a river of time.

 Our river may be turbulent at times, but not always as bad, as in the picture.

Joke emoticon

 We may also imagine time pods, to get across the river. The pods can alleviate the fast run of time (one is about to emerge in the picture above).

The river and the pods are to help with imagined tasks, before we take real linguistic challenges in real time. We may abandon the imagery any time.

Let us picture there are word patterns to show in the river, and the pods of time surface with them. We need to use a pattern, for a pod to carry us through.

There is something in the patterns we know from the fields of time. The fields symbolize the grammatical PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE.

 The river has the grammatical PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE. It also shows particles, ING and 3RD. Let us picture the pods together.

The particle ING comes with the verb to be. The particle 3RD comes with the verb to have.

The first line of pods has markings as S and 2ND.
The feature S occurs in our PRESENT field of time, with objects of thought that use the pronouns he, she, or it.

■→CHAPTER 1 tells about the feature S, and ■→PRACTICE 2.1 tells about forms of verbs. 

Feel welcome to further journey.

■→This text is also available in Polish