2.1. WORD PRACTICE IN THE FIELDS

We can learn the grammatical time managing as in Fields, for the grammatical PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE.

 

Exercise 5. Verb forms change for the PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE. Not all verbs are regular in this. Most dictionaries have lists of irregular verbs. The lists show the first, second, and third form, for irregular verbs.

 

Infinitive: to ring (irregular verb)

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

ring

rang

rung

 

Regular verbs take ED in their second and third forms.

 

Infinitive: to sound (regular verb)

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

sound

sounded

sounded

 

We are only beginning our journey. For the time being, we can stay with the first and second forms. We yet need some knowledge of the infinitive.

 

The infinitive is the basic form of the verb with the particleto”. It does not tell the grammatical time and person. We can make phrases with the infinitive, as “We want to learn”.

 

In English, it is mostly the first form of the verb, with the particleto”, that we use to make the infinitive.
I like to write (the PRESENT).

 

In verb phrases that tell the grammatical time and person, the first form can refer to the PRESENT. The second form can tell about the PAST.
I often write (the PRESENT).
I wrote yesterday (the PAST).

 

However, we could even think about something as a “plain basic form”, to talk about the FUTURE.
EMOTICON: SMILE

 

For most verbs, the plain form is going to be the first form.
I will write tomorrow, the FUTURE;
(“write” is the first form of the verb to write).

 

For verbs as to be or to have, it is going to be the bare infinitive, that is, the infinitive without the particle “to”.
I will be home tomorrow, the FUTURE;
(“be” is the bare infinitive of the verb to be;
the first forms are am, is, are).

 

The verb form “will” does not have the infinitive. We use the first form of it, for the plain grammatical FUTURE. This is why most grammar books tell it is the bare infinitive (without the particle “to”), or the first form of the verb, to make the grammatical FUTURE.

 

We do not have to remember all these details now. We can learn step-by-step, managing in our Fields of Time.

 

APPENDIX 1 has more about verbs (see the EXTRAS).

 

Let us only note that the word form “to” does not belong only with the infinitive. To tell the infinitive, we mind if the word that follows is a verb or a noun. The infinitive is a form of a verb.

 

I like to listen to music (the PRESENT, the infinitive is underlined).
I listen to music often (the PRESENT, no infinitive).
I listened to music yesterday (the PAST, no infinitive).
I will listen to music tomorrow (the FUTURE, no infinitive).
Feel welcome to APPENDIX 1.

 

Here onsite, we also have two appendixes about irregular verb forms. APPENDIX 2 and APPENDIX 3 show verb speech sound patterns. Irregular verbs are easier to learn with those language melodies.

 

When we just want to look up a form, we can find alphabetical lists of irregular verbs in dictionaries and over the web. Please remember that American English differs from British English in verb regularity.

 

Our vocoid pattern here is [I:] ― [e:] ― [e:].

 

FIRST FORM

SECOND FORM

THIRD FORM

1ST

2ND

3RD

leave

left

left

 

We can keep thinking about the grammatical time first, as in our basic practice 1.1. We stay with first and second forms.

 

Example: PAST (leave)

 

Answer: left

 

1. FUTURE (leave)

 

2. PRESENT (mean)

 

3. PRESENT (meet)

 

4. PAST (read)

 

5. FUTURE (sleep)

 

6. PAST (sweep)

 

7. PAST (sleep)

 

8. PRESENT (read)

 

9. FUTURE (meet)

 

10. PRESENT (sweep)

 

Exercise 6. We can try our natures another way round. We are staying with the first and second verb forms, along with our vocoid pattern. By standard, we show pronunciation — the way to say a word — in square brackets.

 

Example: left

 

Answer: (time first) PAST (leave)

 

1. meet(s); 2. read [re: d]; 3. read [rI: d]; 4. will sleep; 5. will leave; 6. met; 7. mean(s); 8. meant; 9. slept; 10. swept.

 

English verbs can make patterns we name the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. Feel welcome to further grammar journey.
CHAPTER 3. TIME IS LIKE A RIVER.

LINK TO CHAPTER 3: THE SIMPLE, PROGRESSIVE, AND PERFECT

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LINK: READ THIS IN A SLAVIC LANGUAGE, POLISH

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