APPENDIX 4. THE LANGUAGE CHEMISTRY FOR ALL TENSE PATTERNS

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR:
I, me

 

OTHER PERSONS:
you, we, they, he, she, it

 

THE SIMPLE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: ON

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE ON

THE SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:

I will write.
Short form
I’ll write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will write.
Short form
You’ll (we’ll, they’ll, he’ll, she’ll, it’ll) write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:
I write.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) write.
He (she, it) writes.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE:
I wrote.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) wrote.

*****

THE SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

 

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Do I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Do you (we, they) write?

Does he (she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE:
Did I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

THE SIMPLE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I will not write.
Short form
I won’t write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not write.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I do not write.
Short form
I don’t write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they) do not write.
He (she, it) does not write.
Short form
You (we, they) don’t write.
He (she, it) doesn’t write.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE NEGATIVE:
I did not write.
Short form
I didn’t write.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they, he, she, it) did not write.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) didn’t write.

*****

THE SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

FUTURE SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I not write?
Short form
Won’t I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PRESENT SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Do I not write?
Short form
Don’t I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Do you (we, they) not write?
Does he (she, it) not write?
Short form
Don’t you (we, they) write?

Doesn’t he (she, it) write?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE ON

PAST SIMPLE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Did I not write?
Short form
Didn’t I write?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Did you (we, they, he, she, it) not write?
Short form
Didn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) write?

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: IN

PICTURE: COGNITIVE VARIABLES, VALUE IN

THE PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:

I will be writing.
Short form
I’ll be writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will be writing.
Short form
You’ll be (we’ll be, they’ll be, he’ll be, she’ll be, it’ll be) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:
I am writing.
Short form
I’m writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) are writing.
He (she, it) is writing.
Short form
You’re (we’re, they’re) writing.
He’s (she’s, it’s) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE:
I was writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS:
You (we, they) were writing.
He (she, it) was writing.

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I be writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Am I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Are you (we, they) writing?
Is he (she, it) writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Was I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Were you (we, they) writing?
Was he (she, it) writing?

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I will not be writing.
Short form
I won’t be writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
 You (we, they, he, she, it) will not be writing.
Short form
 You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t be writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I am not writing.
Short form
I’m not writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) are not writing.
 He (she, it) is not writing.
Short form
You’re not (we’re not, they’re not) writing.
 He’s not (she’s not, it’s not) writing.
Alternately
You (we, they) aren’t writing.
 He (she, it) isn’t writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE:
I was not writing.
Short form
I wasn’t writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) were not writing.
He (she, it) was not writing.
Short form
You (we, they) weren’t writing.
He (she, it) wasn’t writing.

*****

THE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Will I not be writing?
Short form
Won’t I be writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not be writing?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) be writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Am I not writing?
(There is no standard short form;
there is only the colloquial form “ain’t”.)

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Are you (we, they) not writing?

 Is he (she, it) not writing?
Short form
Aren’t you (we, they) writing?

Isn’t he (she, it) writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE IN

PAST PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE:
Was I not writing?
Short form
Wasn’t I writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS:
Were you (we, they) not writing?
Was he (she, it) not writing?
Short form
Weren’t you  (we, they) writing?
Wasn’t he  (she, it) writing?

*****

THE PERFECT ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: TO

COGNITIVE VARIABLES: VALUE TO

THE PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:

I will have written.
Short form
 I’ll have written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have written.
Short form
You’ll have (we’ll have, they’ll have, he’ll have, she’ll have, it’ll have) written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:
I have written.
Short form
I’ve written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have written.

He (she, it) has written.
Short form
You’ve (we’ve, they’ve) written.
He’s (she’s, it’s) written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE:
I had written.
Short form
I’d written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had written.
Short form
You ’d (we’d, they’d, he’d, she’d) written.
No form as * “it’d” has been practiced, spoken or written;
it is phonologically implausible. We always use the full form, e.g.
It (the computer) had written it would surrender.

*****

THE PERFECT INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Will I have written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Have I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) written?

Has he (she, it) written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT INTERROGATIVE
Had I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

*****

THE PERFECT NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT NEGATIVE
I will not have written.
Short form
I won’t have written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have written.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT NEGATIVE
I have not written.
Short form
I haven’t written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have not written.

He (she, it) has not written.
Short form
You (we, they) haven’t written.

He (she, it) hasn’t written.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT NEGATIVE
I had not written.
Short form
I hadn’t written.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not written.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t written.

*****

THE PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

FUTURE PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Will I not have written?
Short form
Won’t I have written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have written?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PRESENT PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Have I not written?
Short form
Haven’t I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) not written?

Has he (she, it) not written?
Short form
Haven’t you (we, they) written?

Hasn’t he (she, it) written?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE TO

PAST PERFECT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Had I not written?
Short form
Hadn’t I written?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not written?
Short form
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) written?

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
COGNITIVE VARIABLE: AT

COGNITIVE VARIABLES: VALUE AT

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE AFFIRMATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I will have been writing.
Short form
I’ll have been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will have been writing.
Short form
You’ll have been (we’ll have been, they’ll have been, he’ll have been, she’ll have been, it’ll have been) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I have been writing.
Short form
I’ ve been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have been writing.

He (she, it) has been writing.
Short form
You’ve been (we’ve been, they’ve been) writing.
He’s been (she’s been, it’s been) writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST AFFIRMATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE AFFIRMATIVE
I had been writing.
Short form
I’ d been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had been writing.
Short form
You’d been (we’d been, they’d been, he’d been, she’d been) writing.
As with the Perfect Simple pattern, no form as “it’d been” would have been practiced.

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE
Will I have been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

Have I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) been writing?
Has he (she, it) been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE INTERROGATIVE

Had I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I will not have been writing.
Short form
I won’t have been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) will not have been writing.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) won’t have been writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I have not been writing.
Short form
I haven’t been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they) have not been writing.

He (she, it) has not been writing.
Short form
You (we, they) haven’t been writing.

He (she, it) hasn’t been writing.

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE

I had not been writing.
Short form
I hadn’t been writing.

 

OTHER PERSONS
You (we, they, he, she, it) had not been writing.
Short form
You (we, they, he, she, it) hadn’t been writing.

*****

THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE FUTURE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Will I not have been writing?
Short form
Won’t I have been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Will you (we, they, he, she, it) not have been writing?
Short form
Won’t you (we, they, he, she, it) have been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PRESENT NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Have I not been writing?
Short form
Haven’t I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Have you (we, they) not been writing?

Has he (she, it) not been writing?
Short form
Haven’t you (we, they) been writing?

Hasn’t he (she, it) been writing?

*****

VISUALS FOR SYNTAX: THE PAST NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE, VALUE AT

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

Had I not been writing?
Short form
Hadn’t I been writing?

 

OTHER PERSONS
Had you (we, they, he, she, it) not been writing?
Short form
Hadn’t you (we, they, he, she, it) been writing?

 

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